C and C++ are programming languages, but we often hear their names together, so what is the difference between the two of them? C++ has been derived as a more efficient version of the C language. The major difference between the two is that C is a procedural language, whereas C++ is an object-oriented language. In simpler terms, this means that C does not support the concept of classes and objects, while C++ does support object-oriented features like classes, inheritance, abstraction, and many more.
C was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1969 and released in 1972. It is a procedural programming language and does not follow the OOPs concepts like inheritance, polymorphism, or encapsulation. Additionally, the data in a C code behaves as a free entity and can be manipulated by outside code. C also does not support operator overloading concepts. C is also known as function-driven language. It is lightweight and offers manual memory management. Because C is a procedure-oriented programming language, it follows a top-down approach. In this case, the main() function is written at first, and all subfunctions are called from the main() function. Thereafter, sub-functions are written as per the requirements. C language can be used when writing system level codes.
C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 and made its first appearance in 1985. C++ supports both procedural and object-oriented concepts of programming. Therefore, it supports inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. Encapsulation ensures that the data is hidden, and only the intended data is visible to an outside user. C++ is also known as object driven language. The C++ programming language has almost everything that C has to offer but more effectively. The C++ programming language follows a bottom-up approach. In the bottom-up approach, the code is composed of classes and functions, and these are later integrated with the main() function. While C++ can run most C code, the C compiler isn’t able to execute the C++ code. C++ must be used when writing codes for networking and server-side applications.
C vs C++ Differences
||C follows a top-down approach
||C++ follows a bottom-up approach
|Compatibility with each other
||C compilers cannot execute C++ codes
||C++ compilers can run C codes
||Does not support encapsulation hence, not good for data security
||Supports the concept of encapsulation, hence data security is assured
||No such feature is offered.
||C++ allows the programmer to hide variables inside a class and provide an interface only with the functions
||C has 32 keywords
||C++ has 52 keywords
||C does not provide direct methods to handle exceptions
||C++ has try and catch blocks for exception handling
|Input and Output Functions
||C uses scanf() function to take input from the user and printf() to print the results
||C++ uses cin to take input and cout to present the output. These are operator overloaded functions
Both of them are among the two most basic languages for programming. Hence, it is a great time to brush up on your C and C++ skills or start developing them, if you haven’t already.